Bibliography

Books

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Antonopoulos, Andreas M., The Internet of Money Volume One, Merkle Bloom, 2017, Kindle.
Bambara, Joseph J, and Paul R Allen, Blockchain: A Practical Guide to Developing Business, Law, and Technology Solutions, McGraw-Hill, 2018.
Benkler, Yochai, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom, Yale UP, 2006.
Brafman, Ori, and Rod A. Beckstrom, The Starfish and the Spider, Portfolio, 2006.
Brennan, Geoffrey, and James M Buchanan, The Reason of Rules: Constitutional Political Economy, CUP, 1985.
Brennan, Geoffrey, and Loren E Lomasky, Democracy and Decision: The Pure Theory of Electoral Preference, CUP, 1993.
Buchanan, James M, and Gordon Tullock, The Calculus of Consent: Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy, Michigan UP, 1962.
Buchanan, James M., and Richard E. Wagner, Democracy in Deficit: The Political Deficit of Lord Keynes, Academic Press, 1977.
Castells, Manuel, The Rise of the Network Society, Blackwell, 1996.
Davies, Norman, Europe: A History, OUP, 1996.
De Cervantes, Miguel, Don Quixote, Wordsworth, 1993.
De Filippi, Primavera, and Aaron Wright, Blockchain and the Law, Harvard UP, 2018.
Dopfer, Kurt, and Jason Potts, The General Theory of Economic Evolution, Routledge, 2008.
Downs, Anthony, An Economic Theory of Democracy, Harper, 1957.
Fischer, Steven Roger, A History of Writing, Reaktion, 2011, Kindle.
Filletti, Stefano, Towards a European Criminal Law System, Kite, 2017.
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Hayek, F. A, and William Warren Bartley, The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism, Routledge, 1988.
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Karmin, Craig, Biography of The Dollar: How the Mighty Buck Conquered the World and Why It’s Under Siege, Crown, 2008, Kindle.
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Leeson, Peter T., Anarchy Unbound: Why Self-Governance Works Better Than You Think, CUP, 2014.
Lipsey, Richard G., Kenneth I. Carlaw, and Clifford T. Bekar, Economic Transformations: General Purpose Technologies and Long-Term Economic Growth, OUP, 2005).
Lessig, Lawrence, Code and other Laws of Cyberspace, Basic Books, 1999.
Mirowski, Philip, Machine Dreams: Economics Becomes A Cyborg Science, CUP, 2002.
Newman, Christian, Ethereum: The Ultimate Guide to Understanding Ethereum Platform, Blockchain, Smart Contracts and Decentralized Apps, Independent, 2018.
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Olson, Mancur, The Rise and Decline of Nations, Yale UP, 1982.
Ostrom, Elinor, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, CUP, 1990.
Ostrom, Elinor, Understanding Institutional Diversity, Princeton UP, 2005.
Potts, Jason, The New Evolutionary Microeconomics, Elgar, 2000.
Schama, Simon, The Embarrassment of Riches. An Interpretation of the Dutch Culture in the Golden Age, California UP, 1987.
Stringham, Edward Peter, Private Governance, OUP, 2015.
Swan, Melanie, Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy, O’Reilly, 2015.
Vee, Annette, Coding Literacy: How Computer Programming Is Changing Writing, MIT Press, 2017.
Williamson, Oliver E., The Economic Institutions of Capitalism, Free Press, 1985.
Williamson, Oliver E., Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications – A Study in the Economics of Internal Organization, Free Press, 1975.
Wright, Benjamin, Law of Electronic Commerce: EDI, Fax, and E-Mail: Technology, Proof, and Liability, Aspen, 1991.
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Court Cases

Said Peter Paul et vs Said Mario et, Reference: 4/2008, 24/07/2009, Courts of Malta.
Skatteverket vs David Hedqvist, Case C-264/14, 2015, Court of Justice of the European Union.
Software Solutions Partners Ltd, R (on the application of) v HM Customs & Excise, Court of Appeal, [2007] EWHC 971 (Admin), Case No: CO/2220/2005, 02/05/2007, Royal Courts of Justice.

Documents and Reports

“Approval of Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 161–2, Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)”, Federal Register – The Daily Journal of the United States Government, 61 (1996), pp. 25627-25632.
A Primer on Smart Contracts (CFTC, 2018).
Bennett, Christina, Matthew Foley, and Sara Pantuliano, Time to Let Go: Remaking Humanitarian Action for the Modern Era (Humanitarian Policy Group – Overseas Development Institute, 2016).
Commission of the European Communities, Proposal for a European Parliament and Council Directive on Certain Legal Aspects of Electronic Commerce in the Internal Market (586 Final) (Brussels, 1998).
“Commission Recommendation of 19 October 1994 Relating to the Legal Aspects of Electronic Data Interchange”, Official Journal of the European Communities, L 338 (1994), 98.
Cryptocurrencies: Tax Planning for the New Asset Class (EY, 2017).
Davey, Eleanor, John Borton, and Matthew Foley, A History of the Humanitarian System – Western Origins and Foundations (Humanitarian Policy Group – Overseas Development Institute, 2013).
Doing Cash Differently: How Cash Transfers Can Transform Humanitarian Aid (Overseas Development Institute, 2015).
Enhancing Securities Settlement Systems (Greyspark Partners).
European Parliament Report – Committee on Legal Affairs, 2017.
European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), The Distributed Ledger Technology Applied to Securities Markets, 2017.
European Union Agency for Network and Information Security, Distributed Ledger Technology & Cybersecurity – Improving Information Security in the Financial Sector, 2016.
Financial Conduct Authority, Discussion Paper on Distributed Ledger Technology: Discussion Paper DP17/3, 2017.
Financial Conduct Authority, Distributed Ledger Technology Feedback Statement on Discussion Paper 17/03: Feedback Statement FS17/4, 2017.
Financial Conduct Authority, New Technologies and Anti-Money Laundering Compliance, 2017.
Global Legal Research Center, Regulation of Bitcoin in Selected Jurisdictions (The Law Library of Congress, 2014).
Harish, Natarajan, Krause, Solvej Karla, and Gradstein, Helen Luskin, Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) and Blockchain, Fintech Note; No. 1, (Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group, 2017).
HM Revenue & Customs, Revenue and Customs Brief 9 (2014): Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies, 2014.
HM Treasury, Financial Conduct Authority, and Bank of England, Cryptoassets Taskforce: Final Report, 2018.
Humanitarian Financing: Keeping Up with a World in Crisis – #Conversationwith Kristalina Georgieva European Commission Vice President (Friends of Europe / Global Europe, 2016).
International Association of Insurance Supervisors, Fintech Developments in the Insurance Industry, 2017.
IRS, Notice 2014-21, 2014.
Joint Committee of the European Supervisory Authorities, Report on Risks and Vulnerabilities in the EU Financial System, 2017.
Koech, Janet, “Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe”, Annual Report, Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute, 2011.
Konyndyk, Jeremy, Fit for the Future: Envisioning New Approaches to Humanitarian Response (Center for Global Development, 2018).
Quintenz, Brian, “Remarks of Commissioner Brian Quintenz at the 38Th Annual GITEX Technology Week Conference “, U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission, 2018.
R3 and Norton Rose Fulbright, Can Smart Contracts Be Legally Binding Contracts?, 2016.
Ream, John, Yang Chu, and David Schatsky, “Upgrading Blockchains”, Deloitte Insights, 2016.
Singh, Asheem, Nothing to Lose (But Your Chains): Using Blockchain to Better Humanity (Charity Futures, 2018).
“Smart Contracts – Chamber of Digital Commerce”, Chamber of Digital Commerce.
Smart Contracts: Coding the Fine Print – A Legal and Regulatory Guide (Norton Rose Fulbright).
Smart Contracts: Is the Law Ready? (Chamber of Digital Commerce, 2018).
Smart Contracts: Legal Framework and Proposed Guidelines for Lawmakers (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2018).
The Bureau of the Fiscal Service, Monthly Statement of The Public Debt of The United States – April 2018 (The Bureau of the Fiscal Service, 2018) .
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VAT Committee, “Issues Arising from Recent Judgements of the Court of Justice of the European Union”, 2016, Working Paper no 892.
Whitepaper Smart Derivatives Contracts: From Concept to Construction (ISDA, 2018).

Lectures, Media and Presentations

“84% of Executives Report Blockchain Initiatives – PwC”, Times of Malta, 2018.
“€300,000 For Blockchain Scholarships at UOM”, Times of Malta, 2018.
Biham, Eli, Zero Knowledge Protocols, 2011.
“Blockchain Academic to Be First Chair of Malta Digital Innovation Authority”, Times of Malta, 2018.
“‘Blockchain Can be Used for Social Good’, President Says”, Times of Malta, 2018.
“Blockchain on the Agenda as Malta Delta Summit Opens”, Times of Malta, 2018.
“Blockchain Opportunities in Asset Management”, Times of Malta, 2018.
Borg, Bertrand, “BOV Turns Against Cryptocurrencies”, Times of Malta, 2017.
Borg, Jacob, “Financial Investigators Comb Through Satabank’s Client Files”, Times of Malta, 2018.
Borg, Bertrand, “Hold Your Horses, MFSA Tells Blockchain Sector”, Times of Malta, 2018.
Camilleri, Neil, “Egrant Inquiry Clears PM and His Wife, Finds That Signatures on Declarations Were Falsified – The Malta Independent”, The Malta Independent, 2018.
Catania, James, “The Block Behind the Coin”, Times of Malta, 2018.
Cortis, Dominic, “A Bitcoin Crash or Dip?”, Times of Malta, 2018.
Davies, Megan, and Walden Siew, “45 Percent of World’s Wealth Destroyed: Blackstone CEO”, Reuters, 2009.
Debono, James, and Michael Kelley, “Overhauling Industries Through Blockchain Technology”, Times of Malta, 2018.
Diacono, Tim, “Malta Set For ‘Revolutionary’ National Blockchain Strategy”, Maltatoday, 2017.
Diacono, Tim, “Malta’s First Bitcoin ATM Runs into a Bit of Trouble”, Lovin Malta, 2018.
Dreyfus, Alexandre, “Malta: One Step Ahead in Blockchain”, Times of Malta, 2018.
Faure, Sonya, and Cécile Daumas, “Emmanuel Todd : «La Crétinisation Des Mieux Éduqués Est Extraordinaire»”, Libération, 2017.
“First Steps Towards Blockchain Applications Being Discussed”, Times of Malta, 2018 [Accessed 1 December 2018].
Gabaudan, Michel, “From Emergency Aid to Development Aid: Agencies Are Failing To Connect”, The Guardian, 2012.
Garg, Sanjan, “Lecture 10: Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge (NIZK) and the Hidden-Bit Model”, 2014.
Gauci, Dennis Mark, “The Blockchain Island”, Times of Malta, 2018.
Iinuma, Arthur, “What Is Blockchain and What Can Businesses Benefit from It?”, Forbes, 2018.
Lessig, Lawrence, “Deja Vú All Over Again”, 2015.
Levine, D. M., “A Day in the Quiet Life of a NYSE Floor Trader”, Fortune, 2013.
“Malta And Blockchain”, The Malta Independent, 2018.
Marr, Bernard, “Here Are 10 Industries Blockchain Is Likely to Disrupt”, Forbes, 2018.
Martin, Ivan, “Malta Becomes First Country to Explore Blockchain Education Certificates”, Times of Malta, 2017.
Mercieca, Simon, “Bitcoins and Blockchain”, The Malta Independent, 2018.
Mercieca, Simon, “Bitcoin and the Return of Traditional Family Values”, The Malta Independent, 2018.
Mercieca, Simon, “Is Malta Losing its Sovereignty?”, The Malta Independent, 2018.
“Mintoff: on the Threshold of Grandness – The Malta Independent”, The Malta Independent, 2018.
“Money Laundering: Greens MEP Tells HSBC To Quit Malta, PN MP Tells Him To ‘F… Off’”, The Malta Independent, 2018.
Muscat Azzopardi, Steve, and Silvana Zammit, “A Blockchain-Based Future for the Malta Gaming Industry”, Times of Malta, 2018.
Muscat Azzopardi, Steve, “Setting Up a Blockchain Technology Company”, Times of Malta, 2018.
Patri Friedman, “Beyond Democracy: Could Seasteads and Cryptocurrencies Replace the Nation State? “, The Spectator, 2018.
“Positioning Malta as a Blockchain Destination”, Times of Malta, 2018 [Accessed 4 December 2018].
“President’s Trust Teams Up with Crypto Giant Binance”, Times of Malta, 2018.
Radocchia, Samantha, “Why Zk-Snarks Are Crucial for Blockchain Data Privacy”, Forbes, 2018.
Scicluna, Christina, “Malta, The New Kid on the Blockchain”, Times of Malta, 2018.
Tapscott, Alex, Blockchain Is Eating Wall Street – Tedxsanfrancisco, 2017.
“The Prime Minister’s Message for The New Year – TVM News”, TVM, 2017.
“The Stateless Society – Earn A Living”, ARTE TV, 2018.
“The Tax Rules for Crypto in the U.S. Simplified”, Cryptocurrency Facts.
“Top US Cryptocurrency Exchange Invests in Malta-Based Blockchain Company”, Times of Malta, 2018.
Van Amersfoort, Joost, Zero-Knowledge Proofs, 2014.
Wiles, Niki, The Radical Potential of Blockchain Technology, 2015.
Woolf, Nicky, “Bitcoin ‘Exit Scam’: Deep-Web Market Operators Disappear with $12M”, The Guardian, 2015.
Whipple, Tom, and Oliver Moody, “Interview with Stephen Hawking on Humanity (and Jeremy Corbyn)”, Times of London, 2017.

Papers, Chapters (Books), and Theses

Allen, Darcy, Alastair Berg, Chris Berg, and Jason Potts, “Some Economic Consequences of the GDPR”, 2018.
Banasik, Wacław, Stefan Dziembowski, and Daniel Malinowski, Efficient Zero-Knowledge Contingent Payments in Cryptocurrencies Without Scripts (Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/451, 2016).
Ben-Sasson, Eli, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, and Eran Tromer and others, “Zerocash: Decentralized Anonymous Payments from Bitcoin”, in 2014 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2014/349, 2014), pp. 459-474.
Ben-Sasson, Eli, Alessandro Chiesa, Eran Tromer, and Madars Virza, Succinct Non-Interactive Zero Knowledge for a Von Neumann Architecture (Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2013/879, 2015).
Ben-Sasson, Eli, Iddo Bentov, Yinon Horesh, and Michael Riabzev, Scalable, Transparent, and Post-Quantum Secure Computational Integrity (IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2018).
Berry, Daniel M., “The Importance of Ignorance in Requirements Engineering”, Journal of Systems and Software, 28 (1995), pp. 179-184.
Bianchi, Daniele, Cryptocurrencies as an Asset Class? An Empirical Assessment, WBS Finance Group Research Paper, 2018.
Bresnahan, Timothy, and Manuel Trajtenberg, “General Purpose Technologies ‘Engines of Growth’?”, Journal of Econometrics, 65 (1995), pp. 83-108.
Buchanan, James M., “The Domain of Constitutional Economics”, Constitutional Political Economy, 1 (1990), pp. 1-8.
Bünz, Benedikt, Jonathan Bootle, Dan Boneh, Andrew Poelstra, Pieter Wuille, and Greg Maxwell, Bulletproofs: Short Proofs for Confidential Transactions and More (IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2017).
Busuttil, Salvino, “The National Income Tax of The Maltese Islands 1946-1960”, in Tribute to Alan Blondy (Fondation de Malte, 2017).
Clack, Christopher D., Smart Contract Templates: Legal Semantics and Code Validation, 2018.
Clack, Christopher D., Vikram A. Bakshi, and Lee Braine, “Smart Contract Templates: Foundations, Design Landscape and Research Directions”, Corr – Computing Research Repository, 2016.
Coase, R. H., “The Nature of the Firm”, Economica, 4 (1937), pp. 386-405.
Coase, R. H., “The Problem of Social Cost”, The Journal of Law & Economics, 3 (1960), pp. 1-44.
Colombo, Christian, and Gordon J. Pace, “Industrial Experiences with Runtime Verification of Financial Transaction Systems: Lessons Learnt and Standing Challenges”, Lectures on Runtime Verification, 2018, pp. 211-232.
Cox, Michael, Gwen Arnold, and Sergio Villamayor Tomás, “A Review of Design Principles for Community-Based Natural Resource Management”, Ecology and Society, 15 (2010), Art. 28.
Cremona, A., “Malta: Building Your SPV on Solid Foundations”, Trusts & Trustees, 17 (2011), pp. 563-568.
Davidson, Sinclair, Mikayla Novak, and Jason Potts, “The Cost of Trust: A Pilot Study”, 2018.
Davidson, Sinclair, Primavera De Filippi, and Jason Potts, “Economics of Blockchain”, 2016.
Davidson, Sinclair, Primavera De Filippi, and Jason Potts, “Economics of Blockchain”, 2018.
De Filippi, Primavera, and Benjamin Loveluck, “The Invisible Politics of Bitcoin: Governance Crisis of a Decentralised Infrastructure”, Internet Policy Review, 5 (2016).
Evans, David S., “Economic Aspects of Bitcoin and Other Decentralized Public-Ledger Currency Platforms”, Coase-Sandor Institute for Law & Economics Working Paper No. 685, 2014.
Gabison, Garry, “Policy Considerations for the Blockchain Technology Public and Private Applications”, Science and Technology Law Review, 19 (2016).
Gadd, Cyril J., “The Cities of Babylonia”, in The Cambridge Ancient History – Volume 1 Part 2 – Early History of the Middle East, 3rd edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
Gode, Dhananjay K., and Shyam Sunder, “What Makes Markets Allocationally Efficient?”, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112 (1997), pp. 603-630.
Governatori, Guido, Florian Idelberger, Zoran Milosevic, and Xiwei Xu, “On Legal Contracts, Imperative and Declarative Smart Contracts, and Blockchain Systems”, Artificial Intelligence and Law, 2018, pp. 1-33.
Hacker, Philipp, “Corporate Governance for Complex Cryptocurrencies? A Framework for Stability and Decision Making in Blockchain-Based Organizations”, Forthcoming in Regulating Blockchain. Techno-Social and Legal Challenges (Oxford University Press, 2019).
Hardin, Garrett, “The Tragedy of the Commons”, Science, 162 (1968), pp. 1243-1248.
Harvey, Campbell R., “Cryptofinance”, 2016.
Hayek, F. A., “The Use of Knowledge in Society”, The American Economic Review, XXXV (1945), pp. 519-30.
Hayek, F. A., “The Pretence of Knowledge”, American Economic Review, 76 (1989), pp. 3-7.
Hayek, F. A., and Marcellus S. Snow, “Competition as a Discovery Procedure”, The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, 5 (2002), pp. 9-23.
Hendrickson, Joshua R., Thomas L. Hogan, and William J. Luther, “The Political Economy of Bitcoin”, Economic Inquiry, 54 (2015), pp. 925-939.
Hess, Charlotte, and Elinor Ostrom, “A Framework for Analyzing the Knowledge Commons”, in Understanding Knowledge as a Commons: From Theory to Practice (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2005).
Ibáñez, Luis-Daniel, Kieron O’Hara, and Elena Simperl, On Blockchains and the General Data Protection Regulation, 2018.
Kierkegaard, Sylvia, “E-Contract Formation: U.S. and EU Perspectives”, Shidler J. L. Com. & Tech., 3 (2007).
Kiffer, Lucianna, Dave Levin, and Alan Mislove, “Analyzing Ethereum’s Contract Topology”, in Proceedings of the Internet Measurement Conference (Boston, Massachusetts: (IMC’18), 2018), pp. 494-499.
Kiviat, Trevor I., “Beyond Bitcoin: Issues in Regulating Blockchain Transactions”, Duke Law Journal, 65 (2015), pp. 569-608.
Kolber, Adam J., “Not-So-Smart Blockchain Contracts and Artificial Responsibility”, Stanford Technology Law Review, 21 (2018).
Kosba, Ahmed, Andrew Miller, Elaine Shi, Zikai Wen, and Charalampos Papamanthou, Hawk: The Blockchain Model of Cryptography and Privacy-Preserving Smart Contracts (Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2015/675, 2015).
Lamport, Leslie, Robert Shostak, and Marshall Pease, “The Byzantine Generals Problem”, ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, 4 (1982), pp. 382-401.
Leeson, Peter T., “An‐Arrgh‐Chy: The Law and Economics of Pirate Organization”, Journal of Political Economy, 115 (2007), pp. 1049-1094.
Leeson, Peter T., “Coordination Without Command: Stretching the Scope of Spontaneous Order”, Public Choice, 135 (2008), pp. 67-78.
Miers, Ian, Decentralized Anonymous Payments (Baltimore, Maryland: The John Hopkins University, 2017).
Mirowski, Philip, and Koye Somefun, “Markets as Evolving Computational Entities”, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 8 (1998), pp. 329-356.
Nakamoto, Satoshi, Bitcoin: A Peer-To-Peer Electronic Cash System, 2008.
Ostrom, Elinor, “Beyond Markets and States: Polycentric Governance of Complex Economic Systems”, American Economic Review, 100 (2010), pp. 641-672.
Ostrom, Elinor, James Walker, and Roy Gardner, “Covenants With and Without a Sword: Self-Governance is Possible”, American Political Science Review, 86 (1992), pp. 404-417.
Paech, Philipp, “The Governance of Blockchain Financial Networks”, The Modern Law Review, 80 (2017), pp. 1073-1110.
Peyton Jones, Simon, Jean-Marc Eber, and Julian Seward, “Composing Contracts: An Adventure in Financial Engineering”, in The Fifth ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Functional Programming, 2000, pp. 280–292.
Potts, Jason, “Knowledge and Markets”, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 11 (2001), pp. 413-431.
Raskin, Max, “The Law and Legality of Smart Contracts”, Georgetown Law Technology Review, 1 (2017).
Savelyev, Alexander, “Contract Law 2.0: <> Contracts as the Beginning of the End of Classic Contract Law”, 2016.
Seybolt, Taylor B., “Harmonizing the Humanitarian Aid Network: Adaptive Change in a Complex System”, International Studies Quarterly, 53 (2009), pp. 1027-1050.
Skarbek, David, “Governance and Prison Gangs”, American Political Science Review, 105 (2011), pp. 702-716.
Szabo, Nick, “Smart Contracts: Building Blocks for Digital Markets”, Phonetic Sciences, Amsterdam, 1996.
Szabo, Nick, “’Smart Contracts: Building Blocks for Digital Markets”, Extropy #16, 1996.
Szabo, Nick, “Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks”, First Monday, 2 (1997).
Tendon, Steve, and Max Ganado, “Legal Personality for Blockchains, DAOs and Smart Contracts”, Revue Trimestrielle De Droit Financier, 1 (2018), pp. 1-9.
Tullock, Gordon, “The Welfare Costs of Tariffs, Monopolies, and Theft”, Economic Inquiry, 5 (1967), pp. 224-232.
Weitzenboeck, Emily M., “Electronic Agents and the Formation of Contracts”, International Journal of Law and Information Technology, 9 (2001), pp. 204-234.
Werbach, Kevin, and Nicholas Cornell, “Contracts Ex Machina”, Duke Law Journal, 67 (2017).
White, Lawrence, “The Market for Cryptocurrencies”, Cato Journal, 35 (2015), pp. 383-402.
Williamson, Oliver E., “Markets and Hierarchies: Some Elementary Considerations”, American Economic Review, 63 (1973), pp. 316-325.
Wright, Aaron, and Primavera De Filippi, “Decentralized Blockchain Technology and the Rise of Lex Cryptographia”, 2015.
Yamey, B. S., “Scientific Bookkeeping and the Rise of Capitalism”, The Economic History Review, 1 (1949), pp. 99-113.
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas and Buckley, Ross P. and Arner, Douglas W., The Distributed Liability of Distributed Ledgers: Legal Risks of Blockchain (August 13, 2017).
Zwitter, Andrej, and Mathilde Boisse-Despiaux, “Blockchain For Humanitarian Action and Development Aid”, Journal of International Humanitarian Action, 3 (2018).

Websites

“Global Bitcoin Price Index (GBX)”, Bitcoinaverage.
Greenspan Gideon, ‘Beware the Impossible Smart Contract’, Multichain, 2016/.
Greenspan, Gideon, “Smart Contract Showdown: Hyperledger Fabric Vs Multichain Vs Ethereum Vs Corda”, Multichain, 2018.
Griffin, Andrew, “Saudi Arabia Becomes First Country to Make a Robot into a Citizen”, The Independent, 2017.
“Harold Wilson: A Week Is a Long Time in Politics”, UK Parliament.
Heller, Gernot, Thomas Escritt, and Michelle Martin, “France, Germany Call for Joint G20 Action on Cryptocurrencies”, Reuters, 2018.
Helms, Kevin, “Only 39 Percent Pass Malta’s Cryptocurrency Exam”, Bitcoin News, 2018.
Higgins, Stan, “Nevada Becomes First US State to Ban Blockchain Taxes”, Coindesk, 2017.
“Here’s How GDPR and the Blockchain Can Coexist”, The Next Web, 2018.
Higgins, Stan, “Vermont Governor Signs Bill Clearing Way for Blockchain Companies”, Coindesk, 2018.
“How Does the EU’s GDPR Apply to Hashed Data on the Blockchain? “, Global Legal Blockchain Consortium, 2018.
“How Zerocash Works”, Zerocash-Project.org.
Iinuma, Arthur, “Why is the Cryptocurrency Market so Volatile: Expert Take”, Cointelegraph, 2018.
Kenton, Will, “Asset”, Investopedia, 2018.
Kershaw, Patrick, “Decentralised Autonomous Co-operative’s (DAC) and the Rise of the New ‘Commons’”, Medium, 2018.
Khatri, Yogita, “EY Reveals Zero-Knowledge Proof Privacy Solution for Ethereum “, Coindesk, 2018.
Klasing, David, “How Are Investments in Initial Coin Offerings (Icos) Taxed?”, Klasing Associates, 2018.
Klasing, David, “Understanding Initial Coin Offerings, Tokens, and Their Tax Treatment”, Klasing Associates, 2018.
Leandros, Petros, “Disruptive Innovation and Blockchain in Financial Services”, Medium, 2018.
Lucchetti, Stefania, “Why Artificial Intelligence Will Need a Legal Personality – Law Cross Border”, Law Cross Border, 2017.
Luciano, Adam, “Zk-SNARKs — A Realistic Zero-Knowledge Example and Deep Dive”, Medium, 2018.
Luciano, Adam, “Zk-STARKs — Create Verifiable Trust, Even Against Quantum Computers”, Medium, 2018.
McKenzie, Baker, “Launching an ICO in the Netherlands – What You Need to Know”, Lexology, 2018.
Mehta, Anshuman, and Brian Koralewski, “MV=P…Que? Love and Circularity in the time of Crypto”, Medium, 2018.
“Membership Service Providers (MSP) — Hyperledger-Fabricdocs Master Documentation”, Hyperledger-Fabric.Readthedocs.Io .
“MFSA Fees to Issue and Operate a VFA License”, VFA Hub, 2018.
Michels, Dave, “Here’s How GDPR And the Blockchain Can Coexist”, The Next Web, 2018.
“MSP Implementation With Identity Mixer — Hyperledger-Fabricdocs Master Documentation”, Hyperledger-Fabric.Readthedocs.Io.
Muscat, Joseph, Twitter, 2018.
Nakamoto, Satoshi, “Bitcoin Open Source Implementation of P2P Currency”, Satoshi Nakamoto Institute, 2009.
O’Leary, Rachel Rose, “Startup Behind Zk-Starks Tech to Seek Cryptocurrencies as Customers”, Coindesk, 2018.
O’Neal, Stephen, “From Malta to Prague: What is the Most Crypto-Friendly Travel Destination?”, Cointelegraph, 2018.
Osborne, Chris, “15 Crypto Companies in Malta You Should Get to Know”, Chris Osborne, 2018.
Palmer, Danny, “What Is GDPR? Everything You Need to Know about the New General Data Protection Regulations”, Zdnet, 2018.
“Patrick Young: Blockchain and Cryptocurrencies are Warming Up | Bitcoin Conference Malta”, Malta.Bc.Events, 2017.
Perani Giovanni, “Blockchain: is Self-Regulation Sufficient?”, Medium, 2018.
“Prof. Gordon Pace – Computer Science – University of Malta”, University of Malta, 2018.
Reitwiessner, Christian, “Zksnarks in a Nutshell”, Blog.ethereum.org, 2016.
Rothrie, Sarah, “What You Need to Know about EU Data Privacy and Blockchain”, Coincentral, 2018.
Rundle, David, “Good Duke Humfrey: Bounder, Cad and Biliophile (Part I)”, Bonæ Litteræ: Occasional Writing from David Rundle, Renaissance Scholar, 2013.
Seira, Rodrigo, “Blockchain Protocol Developers are not Fiduciaries: An Analysis of the Cryptoeconomics of Open Source Networks and the Role of Protocol Developers in Public Blockchain Network Governance”, Good Audience, 2018.
Shankleman, Jessica, “When is a Bitcoin not a Bitcoin? When it’s an Asset, Says G20”, Livemint, 2018.
Sharman, Alice, “Blockchain Could ‘Do Away with the Charity Sector Altogether’”, Civil Society, 2017.
Sherafatmand, Lida, “Lida Sherafatmand Official Website”, Lida Gallery, 2019.
Stark, Josh, “Making Sense of Blockchain Smart Contracts”, Coindesk, 2016.
Tar, Andrew, “Proof-Of-Work, Explained”, Cointelegraph, 2018.
Watson, David, and Edward Budd, “Deutsche Bank’s 5 Lessons Learned from DLT in 2016”, Coindesk, 2016.
“What Is Ethereum? The Most Comprehensive Guide Ever!”, Blockgeeks.
“What’s in a Smart Contract”, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer.
“XRP (XRP) Price, Market Cap, Info”, Athcoinindex.

Acts and Subsidiary Legislation (Malta)

Arbitration Act, Chapter 387 of the laws of Malta.
Consumer Affairs Act, Chapter 378 of the Laws of Malta.
Data Protection Act, Chapter 586 of the laws of Malta.
Electronic Commerce Act, Chapter 426 of the laws of Malta.
Innovative Technology Arrangements and Services Act, Chapter 592 of the laws of Malta.
Income Tax Act, Chapter 123 of the laws of Malta.
Investment Services Act, Chapter 370 of the laws of Malta.
Malta Digital Innovation Authority Act, Chapter 591 of the laws of Malta.
Maltese Civil Code, Chapter 16 of the laws of Malta.
Maltese Criminal Code, Chapter 9 of the laws of Malta.
Prevention of Money Laundering and Funding of Terrorism, Subsidiary Legislation 373.01 of the laws of Malta.
Securitisation Act, Chapter 484 of the laws of Malta.
Trusts and Trustees Act, Chapter 331 of the laws of Malta.
Virtual Financial Assets Act, Chapter 590 of the laws of Malta.

Acts and Subsidiary Legislation (USA)

Arizona HB2417 | 2017 | Fifty-Third Legislature 1st Regular”, Legiscan, 2017.

EU Directives

Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 on the common system of value added tax.
Council Directive (EU) 2016/1065 of 27 June 2016 amending Directive 2006/112/EC as regards the treatment of vouchers.

EU Regulations

Regulation (EU) No 910/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 2014 on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the internal market and repealing Directive 1999/93/EC.
On the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation), Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016.

Documents and Publications of Maltese Authorities and Regulators

Consultation for the Strengthening of the Malta Financial Services Authority, Parliamentary Secretary for Financial Services, Digital Economy, and Innovation, 2017.
Consultation on The Proposed Regulation of Collective Investment Schemes Investing in Virtual Currencies, MFSA, 2017.
Discussion Paper on Initial Coin Offerings, Virtual Currencies and related Service Providers, MFSA, 2017.
Guidelines for the Purpose of the Duty on Documents and Transfers Act, Office of the Commissioner for Revenue, 2018.
Guidelines for the VAT Treatment of Transactions or Arrangements Involving DLT Assets, Office of the Commissioner for Revenue, 2018.
Guidelines on the Income Tax Treatment of Transactions or Arrangements Involving DLT Assets, Office of the Commissioner for Revenue , 2018.
Malta – A Leader in DLT Regulation, Parliamentary Secretary for Financial Services, Digital Economy, and Innovation, 2018.
VFA Rulebook, MFSA.